Name: Individual crime data (Individens kriminalitet)
Period(s): 1966-1979 (SMS)
Code book: IV

Information

Individual Crime Data for the members of the Stockholm Birth Cohort have been collected from the National Crime Register (Person- och belastningsregistret, PBR), which is administered by the Swedish National Police Board (Rikspolisstyrelsen). The first set of data was collected in 1979. It contained data on the number of crimes reported to the police that were connected to each cohort member for the years 1966 – 1978 and for the first part of 1979 as well.

It is important to know that crimes reported to the police that were committed by cohort members before their 18th birthdays were not subject to the same set of punishments as those committed by adults. In fact, during this period, special treatment was also given to those between the ages of 18 and 20. All crimes that were reported to the police and committed by minors (persons under 18) were reported by the police to the Child Welfare Committees. Thus, there is a considerable overlap between the variables reported here and those variables concerning juvenile delinquency reported in the Child Welfare Committee Data found in Code Book Volume II for the years 1966 – 1971.1

The CWC records are more accurate for children under age 15. The police are not allowed to file records against them unless in extremely serious cases. They are, however, required to report each crime to the CWC which keeps track of them. The CWC also received information concerning criminal behaviour from schools, parents, neighbours, shopkeepers, etc. In most cases, it was not required by law to report these crimes to the police, unless a serious crime was involved.

Although the PBR no longer contains information about individuals below age 15,2 at the time these data were collected, this information was still possible to get. The individual crime variables for 1966 included crimes committed prior to 1966 as well.

After age 15, the police records are probably more reliable, in part due to the national coverage they entail. CWC records were only gathered for those living in the city of Stockholm. The CWC was required to report crimes to the police committed by persons over 15. Minor offences committed by individuals under age 18 are eliminated five years after registration and serious offences after 10 years, if no further crimes are recorded.

In 1984, the individual crime data for the members of the Stockholm Birth Cohort was updated. Once again, information was taken from the National Crime Register (PBR). Reported crimes for the period from 1975 – 1979 were re-checked. Some new acts of crime have been found for this period that were not found in 1979. This is due administrative routines and to the fact that not all cases are reported until the case is “closed”. Hence, there may be a delay between when a crime is actually committed (or becomes known to the police) and the date that it is officially stored in the National Crime Register. Crime dates are meant to mirror the date that the crime was actually committed and not the date that it was officially registered. Any new crimes found for the period 1975 – 1979 were added to the crimes from the previous INCRI79 variables.

The current version of the Individual Crime Data contained in the file INCRI84 ORGINAL.SAV contains information covering the period from 1966 – 1983 and for the first part of 1984 as well. Variables that have the name incrixxb, i.e., with a “b” at the end of the name, denote the variables for the period 1975 – 1979 that were rechecked and updated in 1984.

The crime data has been divided into 7 categories of crime. Each category corresponds to a set of paragraphs in the Swedish Penal Code or to some other Act or Ordinance. The seven categories are:

1. Violent crime (våldsbrott) refers to crimes against the person. This is a broad category that not only involves crimes of physical violence or threats of physical violence (e.g., assault, rape and robbery), but also crimes such as molestation and unlawful intrusion. The following chapters and paragraphs of the Swedish Penal Code
apply: Ch 3 Par 1-4, 7-9 and 12; Ch 4 Par 1-2 and 4-7; Ch 6 Par 1-2; Ch 8 Par 5-6; Ch 16 Par 1-5; Ch 17 Par 1-4; Ch 21 Par 7.

2. Stealing (stöld) is a crime against property. Receiving stolen goods is included in this category. Theft by fraud, however, has been excluded. Robbery has been included in the category for violent crimes and excluded from stealing. The following chapters and paragraphs of the Swedish Penal Code apply: Ch 8 Par 1-4, 7-9 and 12; Ch 9 Par 6-7.

3. Fraud (bedrägeri) is also a property crime. The following chapters and paragraphs of the Swedish Penal Code apply: Ch 9 Par 1-5 and 8-10; Ch 10; Ch 11; Ch 14; Ch 15 Par 8-13.

4. Vandalism (skadegörelse) is considered a crime against property. The following chapters and paragraphs of the Swedish Penal Code apply: Ch 12; Ch 13 Par 1-5.

5. Traffic Crimes (trafikbrott) does not include less serious offences such as illegal parking or speeding. It does include, for example, driving without a license or driving under the influence of alcohol or narcotics, i.e. traffic offences that lead to a court
conviction. The Road Traffic Act applies.

6. Narcotic Crimes (narkotikabrott) include the manufacturing, smuggling, selling and use of substances classified as narcotics. The Narcotic Drugs Ordinance and the Narcotic Drugs Act applies.

7. Other Crimes (övriga brott). Other chapters and paragraphs of the Penal Code or other laws apply.

This section will not present the variables in table format due to the fact that the variables contain too few observations with values which correspond to the individual having committed two or more criminal acts. The value 0 refers to the fact that the observation exists in the National Crime Register but has not committed the actual crime.