In this article, we use a new and rich longitudinal data set, the Stockholm Birth Cohort
Study, which allows us to follow a cohort of girls and boys until they reach 48 years of
age. We study differences in the social background and adult living conditions among
men and women with different experiences of involvement in crime. It is clear that
the female cohort members who have been registered for crime have experienced
more disadvantaged childhoods than the males registered for offending. The results
also indicate that involvement in crime seems to cost more for females, in terms of
social exclusion.


Estrada, F. & Nilsson, A. (2012) Does it cost more to be a female offender? A life-course study of childhood circumstances, crime, drug abuse, and living conditions. Feminist Criminology, doi: 10.1177/1557085111429783